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Succulent plant (succulent plant) refers to a plant whose leaves in the three vegetative organs of roots, stems, and leaves are thick and juicy and have the function of storing large amounts of water, also known as “succulent plants.” It has at least one fleshy tissue. This tissue is a living tissue. In addition to other functions, it can store usable water. When the soil moisture condition deteriorates, and plant roots can no longer absorb and provide necessary water from the soil, it can make plants live independently from the external water supply temporarily.
Introduction to Succulents
Succulents are also called succulents and succulents. They refer to plants whose stems, leaves, or roots have developed parenchyma to store water and appear plump and succulent in appearance.
The family of succulents is enormous. There are more than 10,000 species of succulents known all over the world, which belong to more than 100 families. They are all higher plants with solid adaptability and reproductive ability. Commonly cultivated succulents include Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Cactaceae, Liliaceae, Agavaceae, and Asclepiadaceae. Cactaceae and other succulents have excellent characteristics, distribution, and conservation. Big difference, so the plant kingdom classifies it as a separate family.
1. Mainly divided into four categories according to the different water storage organs:
1. Leaf succulents
Leaf succulents such as Hei Mage, Fu Niang, Tue Huayue, etc. These succulents mainly rely on the leaves to store water—a certain degree of lignification, such as aloe, lithophile, sempervivum, tile reed, etc.
2. Root succulents
Root succulents such as Beijing Maiko, Hooker wine bottle, etc. These succulents mainly rely on the roots to store water. The origins are hypertrophy, which can avoid the sun, and the gnawing of herbivores. The leaves and stems will fall off during the driest season. Keep the root moisture.
3. Stem succulents
Stem succulents such as cloth balls, cacti, etc., such succulents mainly rely on the stems to store water. There are many water-storing cells on the stem, a layer of tissue that can carry out photosynthesis on the surface, and few or no leaves.
4. Other succulents
All parts of all succulents are water-storing organs, such as grape urns and all things thinking.
Classification according to growth period:
Succulents can be divided into three types: the spring and autumn type that prefers stable and warm climates, the summer type that prefers high temperatures, and the winter type that prefers cold climates. Regardless of the class, they grow and develop in their respective preferred environments and are in a dormant state (stop growth and development) during other periods. After entering the inactive state, they no longer absorb water from the roots. If the soil remains moist, the seeds will be injured, and even the plants will wither, so do not water the succulents during the dormant period. In addition, when transplanting during the period from dormancy to the beginning of growth, it must be confirmed that the roots are not damaged.
Succulent plant cultivation technology
The most commonly used soil blending method: peat soil + perlite (1:1)
Succulents that generally live in the wild (except for some water-loving succulents) have the most significant proportion of sand in the ground, followed by gravel and dirt. After field investigations, it was found that most of the wild succulents live in areas where the ratio of sand + gravel is more than 70%.
However, the succulents we bought a home are almost all the seedlings that have just been out of the pot for less than a year in the greenhouse. It is better to have more than a year of large seedlings. However, compared with the succulents in the wild, living in the greenhouse environment is entirely unbearable from tossing. Therefore, some succulents have not improved in two weeks or even a month after buying a home. This has a lot to do with the use of soil.
Many flower friends mistakenly believe that succulents like sandy and granular soil, so they use more than 80% of sand and granules from the beginning. The seedlings won’t grow in a short period, and some even die out.
1. For the succulents that just bought a home, it is best to use soft peat soil (for succulents with different habits, please adapt to the situation). Mr. Root.
Plants rely on the root system to absorb nutrients. The growth of the root system is directly related to the state of the succulents. The peat soil is very soft, which is very conducive to rooting. However, using 100% peat soil will cause too much water or slabs after drying, which will quickly cause the succulents to rot directly.
After a long observation and summary, I think that for the fleshy seedlings, the more reasonable soil mixing method is: peat soil 60% + sand 20% + particles 20%. If you can’t find river sand, you can replace all of them with particles; It can be perlite, volcanic rock, honeycomb, ceramsite, stone, etc.
2. For mature plants (generally referring to more than two years of fleshy plants, slightly different according to the variety), the soil mixing method is similar. Still, the ratio of sand to particles is increased a bit: peat soil + sand + particles 1:1: 1. This ratio is very suitable~ If you want to make succulents grow fatter, you need to change to more profound and larger pots.
The size of succulents is directly related to the depth of the soil. If you use deep and large pots or plants now, the fleshy tend to grow beyond the standard size.
3. After the particles increase, the water loss will be faster, the absorption capacity of the fleshy will decrease, and it will consume its leaves to supply nutrients. So at this time, the bottom leaves will slowly dry and fall off, and over time they will grow into small tree stumps.
And because the bottom leaves keep falling off, the shape is getting closer and closer to the coconut tree.
The proportion of soil mixing at this time is peat soil 10%-20% + sand 20% + particles 60%-80%.
For the succulents of the genus Papinoaceae and the genus Waweed, since the environment of their origin can be best simulated with a pure coarse sand medium, it is recommended to use a granular medium completely.
The ratio is not too strict. In short, it is to increase the occupancy rate of the particles in the soil. However, it is not recommended to use the particles completely for succulent plants other than the genus Valeriana and Apricotaceae. The nutrients contained in the ground are beneficial to its growth.
Pay attention to controlling the watering. To see dryness and wetness, pay attention to the degree of dryness and moisture.
The so-called “seeing dry” refers to the second watering after the soil has turned white and the surface and internal soil moisture have disappeared after one watering. You can’t wait for the potting soil to dry for a long time before watering. The general method is to put your fingers into the ground to feel it dry before watering. If the inside is wet, continuous watering is not suitable. It is easy to cause water to accumulate in the lower part of the soil and cause severe root rot.
The so-called “see wet” is to water every time, that is, wait until the water seeps out from the drainage holes at the bottom of the pot, then allow the watering of “half cut water” (i.e., wet at the top and dry at the bottom), because most of the roots of a thriving plant are concentrated at the bottom of the pot, so watering “Half-cut water” actually means no watering.
Watering with the method of “seeing dry and seeing wet” not only satisfies the water required for the growth of this kind of plant but also ensures the oxygen required for root respiration, which is beneficial to the healthy growth of plants.
Succulents in their native environment will receive at least 3-4 hours of sunlight daily, and some varieties will even receive 6-8 hours of daylight. Due to the limitations of daily living conditions, ordinary families can’t receive long-term, high-quality sunshine daily. Still, as long as there is a south-facing window, at least 2 hours of sun per day is also sufficient.
Adequate but moderate sunlight can make succulents stronger, with more compact plant types, brighter colors, and healthier conditions. They are less likely to be infected by fungi and less likely to be contaminated by insects. Especially in the two growing seasons of spring and autumn, the sunshine time should be increased as much as possible. Succulents are divided into winter and summer types. The winter type grows in winter, spring, and autumn and is dormant in summer, while the summer type grows in summer and is dormant in winter. The sunshine time, including the watering frequency, should be determined by the dormancy situation. Generally, during dormancy, the sunshine should not be too strong, and the watering frequency should be slightly reduced.
In the narrow sense (that is, excluding lower plants), all succulents will bloom. Flowering is an indispensable part of the plant’s growth cycle; the purpose is to set seeds and reproduce offspring. Florists don’t have to panic because of succulent blossoms.
Succulents consume a lot of nutrients when they bloom. For the succulents of Crassulaceae and Wawei, if there is no plan for crossbreeding, especially when the succulent itself is not in good condition, the flower stems can be cut directly with scissors. Of course, you can also keep the flowers for appreciation.
If the flower wilts before it bloom, it means that the succulent nutrients are insufficient or nutrient absorption is poor. At this time, you should check whether the plant’s root system is healthy and whether the ratio of the soil and the nutrients are suitable for the succulent.
When some families and genera succulents bloom, they may attract insect pests due to the nectar and the smell of the flowers. For example, the nectar of the Crassulaceae plants sometimes attracts aphids, while the scent of some succulents in the Prototheca (now incorporated into the Apocynaceae) flower attracts flies and even maggots in the flower core; at this time, it is generally only necessary to cut Drop the flowers to eradicate the pests.
It should be noted that there are succulents of individual family genera, such as the genus Vasson, Sempervivum, Valiant in the Crassulaceae, and most species of Agave and Bromeliaceae in the Asparagaceae. It will die after flowering. The lotus palm of the Crassulaceae will wither after flowering but will not pass as a whole.
Mainly harm the succulents of the milkweed subfamily, Euphorbiaceae, Compositae, and Uniceraceae. With mouthparts sucking the juice of young stems and leaves, the damaged leaves will have permanent yellowish-brown scars, even withered and fallen off. You can check whether there is a spider web on the back of the leaf, usually accompanied by small red/white/dark insects; if there is, it can be judged as infected with red spiders.
Prevention and control measures: increase the environmental humidity to reduce and avoid spreading. Use 40% dicofol 1000 to 1500 times liquid to kill, or use abamectin.
One of the most common insect pests of succulents. It likes to attach to the underside and center of the leaves. It has a wide range of damage. It often damages succulents with relatively thin leaf epidermis and high water content, such as Crassulaceae and Cactaceae. Succulents of, Myriophyllaceae, Prototheca, and other families are less harmful. Scale insects suck the sap of stems and leaves, leading to poor growth of plants, withering and death in severe cases, and inducing coal pollution, which is a very harmful insect. Its high-incidence period is earlier than that of red spiders, and they often begin to multiply in early spring.
Prevention and treatment methods: When the number is small, use toothpicks, tweezers, and other sharp objects to remove, or use a wet cotton swab to wipe off the body and its secretions. When the quantity is large, it can be mixed and sprayed on the leaf surface by the flower protector according to the proportion of the instructions. The dead corners of the leaves that cannot be sprayed are wiped with a cotton swab and syrup. In addition, 800-1000 times liquid or 1:500 Acetamiprid + Abamectin/spray (once in 3-7 days) can also be used. Mixing a certain amount of carbofuran in the culture soil has a preventive effect. Still, the efficacy is only about three months, or acetamiprid 1:800 (ml) irrigated the soil once every half month.
Root meal scale insect
Commonly known as Root mealybug, it is smaller than succulents, white, and extremely difficult to find. It often attaches to the roots of plants and sucks root water, which is a threat to all succulents. It is generally more common in non-toxic species such as Crassulaceae and Apricotaceae. The Myriophyllaceae is slightly toxic and therefore less common. Root mealybugs do not expose the surface of the soil. All activities, including spawning and reproduction, are also carried out inside the earth. When watering a lot, some of its adults and eggs will flow out of the hole at the bottom of the flowerpot and harm other plants. This is also its main reason—one of the ways of transmission. Adult mealybugs have thorns in their mouthparts, which can cause many wounds when sucking plant juices and induce black rot. Due to its difficulty in prevention and control, it is also one of the most harmful insect pests.
Prevention and treatment methods: Replace all the soil infested with mealybugs, scrub the flower pots with steel wire balls (for earthenware pots, terracotta pots with rough walls, and cement pots), and then soak them with disinfectant so as not to damage the flower pots under the premise that the longer, the better, the eggs that ordinary methods cannot kill can also be eradicated. At the same time, all the roots of the infected plant are cut off, and the wound will regenerate after the damage is dried and healed. Rooting powder can be used. When replanting, brush the flowerpot clean and mix it with a brand-new medium.
A butterfly with more harmful larvae to succulents is not easy to find. Succulents of the Crassulaceae family with small or stick-shaped leaves, such as Otome Heart, Rainbow Jade, etc., are standard but are not harmful to those with large, thin, or fluffy leaves. Chewing leaves from time to time go to the center of the leaves and eat from the inside out, so when found, all leaves of the plant are often damaged and dying.
Control methods: Use scales with a concentration of 1:1200 to spray and kill; the effect is better, and it can destroy the eggs and larvae of the current batch. The same medicine can be used to kill adult butterflies. When the larvae, eggs, and adults are all in a small amount, they can be collectively killed by trapping nets and tweezers. But the best way to avoid it is to prevent butterflies from laying eggs. You can move the plants indoors or cover them with a high-transparent, high-permeable plastic net.
Rotting is a disease that often occurs in succulents. It is usually a fungal infection caused by too much watering or the breeding environment being too humid. Some insects, such as mealybugs, can also cause rot, especially root mealybugs. The wounds caused by these pests sucking plant sap can cause fungal infections.
There are many manifestations of decay, which are not easy to detect at an early stage. Always be alert to fading areas on the plant and soft and mushy stems and leaves.
Once the succulents have faded and become soft and mushy, they are rotten. Cut them off immediately. Knives and hands should be disinfected before and after to avoid infecting other plants. Fungal infections should be sprayed with fungicides on the plants, and the wound must be completely dry. Then you can get into the soil.
Keep the utensils clean and sterile when handling rotten plants, and wash your hands carefully before touching other plants.
Crown rot: Use a sterilized knife to cut off the infected part and put crushed charcoal and sulfur into the wound. The wound should be completely dry.
Rotten neck: Cut off the terrible part, and use the rest as cuttings. Do not enter the soil until the wound is completely dry.
Fungal rot: Cut off the damaged part with a clean knife and cover it with sulfur. Spray the plants with Benelite (a fungicide) and Mancozeb mixed solvent.
Black rot: Cut off the infected part with a clean knife, spray with benzene and cover with sulfur.
Water: Succulents can quickly melt into the water in a humid environment. This is a disease that affects the overall health of Succulents. Take care to prevent this from happening. If it happens, remove the part of the water in time. Otherwise, the entire plant will die.
For those without the agents mentioned above, some commonly used disinfection and sterilization drugs can also be used. The most important thing is to cut off the rotten parts, place the plants in a ventilated place, and wait for the wound to dry and heal. As long as the decayed parts are removed, the tenacious vitality of succulents can generally survive, and some rare varieties that are more difficult to cultivate are not included in this list.
Do succulent plants need direct sunlight?
Succulents love the direct sun, but if yours is sitting in the same spot day after day, only one side is likely getting enough light. Langton and Ray suggest rotating the plant often. Succulents will lean towards the sun, so turning them will help them stand straight.
Are succulents good indoor plants?
Because of their unique ability to retain water, succulents tend to thrive in warm, dry climates and don’t mind a little neglect. This makes them well adapted to indoor growing and ideal for people desiring low-maintenance houseplants.
How often should succulents be watered?
approximately once a week
Indoor succulent plants should likely be watered approximately once a week. They need enough time to store the water in their leaves and for the soil to dry out between waterings. Follow these tips and techniques for watering indoor succulent plants. Use a watering with a small pour spout.
What are the benefits of succulent plants?
Here are seven benefits of growing succulents in your house:
- They Can Brighten A Home in Any Climate.
- They Can Help to Purify the Air.
- They Improve the Humidity of Your Home.
- They Can Add Fresh Oxygen to Your Environment.
- They Can Improve Your Focus.
- They Can Increase Pain Tolerance.
- They Enhance Memory.
Are succulents easy to care for?
Succulents, plants adapted to survive in harsh environments and long periods with very little water, play by their rule book, but they’re still pretty easy to care for.
Do succulents clean the air?
They purify the air – Succulents, like snake plants and aloe vera, are excellent at cleansing the air and removing toxins. NASA’s research found that they can remove 87 percent of volatile organic compounds (VOC).
Where should I put succulents outside?
While it’s true that most succulents enjoy abundant sunshine, some do best in partial sun or shade. Be sure the succulents in your planter have similar light requirements, and keep them in a portion of the yard that suits them best.
What type of sunlight do succulents prefer?
Most succulents prefer bright, indirect light. Some succulents can still thrive even if your lighting condition indoors is less than ideal.
Can succulents live outside?
A common question is can succulents live outside? The short answer is yes! They thrive in sunny locations with warm, dry climates and can tolerate neglect, so growing succulents outdoors is a great option. Grow succulents in pots, or tuck them away in unexpected planting spots.
Do succulents need sunlight in the winter?
Another note for caring for succulents in winter is providing enough sunlight. It is ideal for placing your succulents near the brightest windows so they can get indirect yet bright natural light all day. Winter days are shorter. Therefore the plants will need at least 6-hour exposure to indirect sunlight.
Why are my succulents dying?
The reason for succulents dying is because of overwatering and slow-draining soils. Succulents are adapted to tolerate drought and require the ground to dry out between watering. In damp soil, succulents develop root rot which causes the leaves to turn yellow, brown, or black with a dying appearance.
How do I know if my succulent needs water?
A well-watered succulent will have plump, firm leaves. There should be very little give when you squeeze them between your fingers. If they are soft, then they probably need watering. Another sure sign is wrinkled leaves; when they feel thirsty, their leaves pucker and wrinkle.
Do succulents need to be by a window?
Succulents and cacti “are very tolerant of low-light conditions. They don’t have to be near a window to thrive,” he said. Some succulents will grow in areas without natural light, such as rooms without windows. Silverman cautioned against placing succulents too close to heat sources.
How long can succulents go without water?
They can go up to 1-3 months of no watering. Indoor succulents will have less exposure to the elements outdoors – wind and sunlight outdoors tend to dry out the soil faster than indoors. The soil stays moist for extended periods in cooler climates, generally fall and winter.
Can a dead succulent be revived?
While the plant’s diminish may have you panicked, in most cases, reviving succulents is relatively easy, and the plant will turn around quickly. They are adapted to living in particular and often harsh conditions.
Can succulents grow in pots without holes?
Yes, succulents can survive and even thrive in pots without holes. It all depends on how you care for the plants.
Should you mist succulents?
Full-grown succulents don’t like to be misted. They thrive in arid climates, so when you mist them, you change the humidity around the plant. This can lead to rot as well. Use misting for propagation babes to provide water to their delicate little roots lightly.
Why do succulents turn black?
Black leaves on succulents are often a sign of overwatering. If the leaves turn black, the succulent is rotting from the root up due to too much water. Usually, the leaves will also feel soft and mushy. You will usually be able to save the top part as the bottom and center of the plant rot first.
Should you put rocks at the bottom of succulents?
Your succulents will benefit from a layer of pebbles or pea gravel spread on the soil around the plant. This is also very decorative. Soil: Succulents need good draining soil.
How do you feed succulents?
A light feeding of manure tea, diluted fish emulsion, or a balanced fertilizer (15-15-15) helps succulents grow lush and lovely. Be sure to dilute concentrated liquid fertilizers. Not doing so risks damaging roots. For container-grown succulents, one Moo Poo teabag per three gallons of water, steeped overnight.
What kind of care do succulents need?
The rule of thumb is to water succulents thoroughly once a week in summer, twice a month in spring and fall, and monthly during winter dormancy. Keep succulents on the dry side, and give their roots superb drainage. When under-watered, succulents subsist on stored moisture.